下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Definition of communication，文章讲述交流被定义为发送和接收信息的过程，个体之间通过一个由符号、言语、符号、文字或行为组成的共同系统来交换信息的过程(韦氏词典，2011)。交流可以是语言的或非语言的，书面的，或视觉的。根据Paul Endress的研究，7%的交流过程是文字，38%是语调，55%是生理反应。因此，非语言交际占交际的93%;它由以下三个领域及其子组组成:
Communication is defined as the process of sending and receiving information, a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, speech, signs, writing, or behavior (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Communication can be verbal or nonverbal, written, or visual. According to Paul Endress, 7% of the communication process is words, 38% is voice tone, and 55% is physiology. Therefore, nonverbal communication comprises 93% of communication; it is made up of the following three areas and their subgroups:
Clothing and appearance
Tone of voice (paralanguage)
Research shows that the nonverbal "channels" of communication (how things are said) are often more important than words alone (what is said)(Endress, 2010). Demonstrative communication is that part of the communication process that includes nonverbal and unwritten communications. Demonstrative communication entails sending and receiving wordless messages (Nayab, 2010)
Effective or Ineffective
Effective communication is the foundation for positive interactions in the workplace as well as in social settings. To share ideas, give opinions, or be defined as an individual, one must have effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills. These skills are not only important for the sender but also for the receiver. According to Missouri Western State University's Laurel J. Dunn, nonverbal communication can be deciphered beginning in early childhood, but interpretation becomes more accurate as the person grows older. Nonverbal cues are responsible for a major portion of the message sent. Even if the verbal message is flawless, one still might communicate ineffectively (Dunn, 2009). For example, one person walks up to another and with a warm smile and direct eye contact, reaches out, gives the other person a firm handshake and in a happy tone of voice says, “I do not like you.” The other person will most likely smile back and agree. Words are only seven percent of the message whereas 93% is nonverbal. If the two conflict, the brain will register the preponderance of the message, which is the nonverbal. In order for a message to be received effectively, the verbal component must coincide with the nonverbal or demonstrative communication. For example, dressing properly, a firm handshake and a friendly demeanor can speak volumes about the kind of person someone is at a job interview. A person can rely on these qualities to reinforce his or her verbal performance (Sutton, 2011). For the receiver, a message can be easily misread or misunderstood. Gestures, appearances, and facial expressions can have different meanings to different people. People can easily misread people they do not know. For example, meeting someone who looks scruffy and assuming that he is lazy. However, later one discovers that he is a brilliant and hard-working artist. Some people might assume that sitting with arms folded means one is defensive. In fact, this can convey feeling cold or simply comfortable. Nonverbal communication should not be solely relied on because there are no hard and fast rules regarding what different gestures and expressions mean (Sutton, 2011). Across cultural lines, one gesture can mean one thing to one cultural group and mean the complete opposite to another. For example, to give someone the thumbs up gesture in America means he has done a good job. If this same gesture were used in Iran, it would mean an obscenity (Endress, 2010).
Listening and Responding
As with verbal communication, demonstrative communication involves listening and responding. Often an individual can learn more from another’s actions than from his words. Many are the instances in which people can listen with their eyes instead of their ears. For example, a close friend walks out of the classroom after a final examination with her head down, shoulders slumped, and a defeated look on her face. One does not need to ask how well she did. It is important for people to use active listening when receiving any type of message. According to Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado (1998), people often are distracted by other stimuli when they are supposed to be paying attention to a speaker. During an argument, people often formulate a response while the other person is talking, which leaves parts of the message unheard or misunderstood. Active listening involves clearing one’s mind of distractions and focusing entirely on the speaker. Once the speaker has completed talking, paraphrase what he said before replying. Active listening can bridge the gap between effective verbal and nonverbal communication (McNamara, 2010).
Demonstrative communication is that part of the communication process that includes nonverbal and unwritten communications; it entails sending and receiving wordless messages. Nonverbal communication comprises 93% of the message. Effective communication is the foundation for positive interactions; it is equally important to the sender and the receiver. It involves listening and responding. One can learn more from others actions than from their words.